EVSEreview.com

You Purchased An EV.
You Need to Charge Your EV.
You Need Access to EVSE.
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment.


What is EVSE?

EVSE = EV Charging Station

To charge your new EV you need to either find a nearby Public Charging Station in your community, along major transportation corridors or at your place of work.

You may want to purchase a charging station (EVSE) to charge your EV at home. Charging your EV at home is very convenient. You may be able to charge at home at night when electricity rates are reduced.


Charge At Home.

The most convient location to charge your EV is at your home in your garage or outdoors in your carport.

Overnight charging at your home gives you a charged battery and ready to drive your EV for your daily commute to work.

Your electric utility may have reduced Time of Use (TOU) rates encouraging overnight charging.


Charge At Work.

Your employer may have installed a charging station at your place of work.  You may be able to charge your EV during your work hours.

At many workplaces, EV charging is an employee perk.

Yes, charge your EV without charge!


Charge At Public Charging Stations.

A public charging station operated by an EV Charging Network may be located near your residence near a cafe, restaurant, movie theater or shopping mall.

We call these charging stations “Destination Charging Stations.”

There are several Public Charging Networks and more in development.

In case of Tesla EVs, you also may charge at a Tesla owned charging station within the Tesla charging network. More on Tesla later.

(We will discuss EV charging networks and how to find charging stations below.)


What is EVSE?

EVSE or Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment is used to charge an electric vehicle.

EVSE is the Charging Station!

EV owners use the terms “EVSE” and “Charging Station” to mean the same.

A problem can occur when a Charging Station is confused with a charger.

(More on that issue below.)

Currently, there are three types of Supply Equipment or Charging Stations: Level One, Level Two and Level Three.

Siemens VersiCharge Level Two EVSE

EVSE is Not the Charger!

Correct!
For Level One and Level Two charging, the charger is installed in the EV. The charger in the EV converts the incoming AC to DC to charge the car’s battery.

(AC – Alertnating Current)

(DC – Direct Current)


What?

Think of the EVSE as an extension cord with two-way data communication.


Data Communications?

The EVSE communicates with the charger in the EV.

The EVSE asks the EV Charger questions and the EV charger responds with anwsers.


EVSE Sends Questions to the EV Charger….

What is the capacity of the EV charger?

What is the capacity of the EV battery?

What is the State of Charge (SOC) of the EV battery?

Is the battery fully charged?


EVSE / Charging Stations.

Currently, there are three types of Supply Equipment or Charging Stations:

Level One

Level Two

Level Three


Level One Supply Equipment

Level One Supply Equipment plugs into a standard household 110 VAC receptical. The receptical is also known as a NEMA 5-15R.

The Supply Equipment has a SAE J1772 connector on the other end and is used to plug into the EV SAE J1772 receptical.

The charger in the EV converts the incoming AC to DC to charge the battery.

(NEMA – National Electrical Manufacturers Association)

(SAE – Society of Automotive Engineers)

(VAC – Volts Alternating Current)

The phrase “Volts Alternating Current” refers to how much electrical energy can flow through an electrical outlet.


Level Two Supply Equipment

Level Two Supply Equipment plugs into a 220 VAC receptical.

Level Two Supply Equipment also use a SAE J1772 connector to plug into the EV J1772 receptical.

There are several plug and receptical configurations for 220 VAC (see below).

The charger in the EV converts the incoming AC to DC to charge the battery.


Level Three Supply Equipment

Level Three Supply Equipment is also known as Fast Charging.

Fast Charging uses DC or Direct Current.

Fast Charging does not use the charger in the EV.

There is no conversion from AC to DC.

(ChaDeMo – www.chademo.com)


Level Three Fast Charging Plugs and Recepticals

There are two major plug / receptical standards for Fast Charging in the United States:

ChaDeMo

SAE CCS


Fast Charging: ChaDeMo

ChaDeMo was developed in Japan.

ChaDeMo first arrived in the United States in the 2011 Nissan LEAF.

(ChaDeMo – www.chademo.com)


Fast Charging: CSS

Tasked with developing a fast charging system, the SAE J1772 committee took the existing SAE J1772 plug and added on two large pins for high power DC. The upper part is the ordinary SAE J1772 plug used in the United States, and the lower portion are the two DC power pins.

Found in EVs from BMW, GM, VW, and other EV manufacturers.

(CSS – SAE Combo Charging System)


How Long Will It Take to Charge My EV?

This gets complicated.

The answer depends on…

The battery capacity of your EV.

The charging capacity of the charger in your EV.

The charging method you use to charge your EV.


EVs Have Different Battery Capacities.

EVs are sold with a battery with a rated maximum capacity.

Battery capacity is mesured in kilowatt-hours (kWh).


Battery Capacity Examples.

24 kWh – 2013 NIssan Leaf SL

64 kWh – 2019 Nissan LEAF e+

75 kWh – 2020 Tesla Model 3 Long Range Dual Motor


EVs Have Different Charging Capacities.

EVs may charge at a maximum of 3.3 kW, 6.6 kW, 7.7 kW, etc.

(kW – kilowatts or 1,000 watts)


Battery Capacity Degradation.

Battery capacity can degrade over time.

Charging the battery to 100 percent everytime may degrade battery capacity.

Excessive Fast Charging may degrade battery capacity.


The 50-80 Rule.

Follow the 50-80 Rule to retain battery capacity over time.

Charge the EV battery only when the current state of charge (SOC) is less than 50 percent.

Limit the maximum charge to 80 percent of capacity.

Tesla recommends a maximum charge of 80 percent and only 100 percent when you plan a long trip.


Driving Range: Battery Percentage vs. Miles / Kilometers.

EVs have complex computer algorithms which calculate estimated range in miles / kilometers.

The range estimate can vary depending on several factors including how you drive, the terain of your drive (flat freeways vs. hills and valleys), battery capacity, etc.

(Editor Note: We have found battery percentage superior to computer estimated range. )


The Guess-O-Meter.

Some EV owners refer to the range display as the “Guess-O-Meter” and find the range estimates to be highly inaccurate.


I plan to purchase a Level Two Charging Station.
I plan to do the installation.
What steps are involved?
What decisions are involved?

A Level Two charging station requires 220-240 VAC service.

What is the capacity of the electrical service at your location?

Review your electric bill or call your local electric utility to determine capacity.

What type of charging station connection: Plug-in or hard wired version.

Does your location have an existing 220VAC receptacle? If so, what type of receptacle is installed?

(See NEMA Receptacles / Plugs below)

Will the charging station be installed in your garage or outside?

Some charging stations enclosures are rated for outdoor use.


I plan to have a Charging Station installed in my garage.
I plan to purchase a plug-in Level 2 charging station.
Which NEMA plug / receptacle should I choose?

A NEMA 6-50 240 VAC outlet with 50 amps max is great for EV charging.

Make sure you have a licensed electrician perform the installation of the receptacle, wiring and the circuit breaker. A local city or county building permit may be required.

The circuit breaker recomendation will be found in the charging station manufacturer’s installation manual.


NEMA Receptacles / Plugs.

NEMA 5-15 – Common household outlets – 15 amps max

NEMA 5-20 – Common household outlets – 20 amps max

NEMA 14-30 – Clothes dryer/oven outlets installed after 1996 – 30 amps max

NEMA 14-50 – Clothes dryer/oven outlets installed after 1996 – 50 amps max

NEMA 10-30 – Clothes dryer/oven outlets installed prior to 1996 – 30 amps max

NEMA 6-15 – 240 VAC outlet – 15 amps max

NEMA 6-20 – 240 VAC outlet – 20 amps max

NEMA 6-50 – 240 VAC outlet – 50 amps max